Tic-Tac-Toe Game in Python

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Introduction To Tic-Tac-Toe Game in Python

In this article Tic-Tac-Toe Game in Python, I will introduce you to an advanced Python project on Tic Tac Toe GUI with Python. This game is very popular and is quite simple in itself. It is a two-player game. In this game, there is a board with 3×3 squares.

Tic-Tac-Toe Game in Python

In this game a player can choose between two symbols with his opponent, the usual games use “X” and “O”. If the first player chooses “X”, then the second player must play with “O” and vice versa.

Also, Read – 100+ Machine Learning Projects Solved and Explained.

A player marks one of the 3×3 squares with his symbol (perhaps “X” or “O”) and he aims to create a straight line horizontally or vertically or diagonally with two intensions:

  1. Create a straight line before your opponent to win the game.
  2. Prevent his opponent from creating a straight line first.

If no one can logically create a straight line with its symbol, the game ends in a tie. So there are only three possible outcomes: one player wins, his opponent (human or computer) wins, or there is a tie.

Tic Tac Toe GUI with Python

Tic-Tac-Toe Game in Python There are two basic logics in this game; when both players are human, and when one is a computer. I will prepare this Tic Tac Toe GUI with Python for two players. Here is your full code:

from tkinter import *
import numpy as np

size_of_board = 600
symbol_size = (size_of_board / 3 - size_of_board / 8) / 2
symbol_thickness = 50
symbol_X_color = '#EE4035'
symbol_O_color = '#0492CF'
Green_color = '#7BC043'


class Tic_Tac_Toe():
    # ------------------------------------------------------------------
    # Initialization Functions:
    # ------------------------------------------------------------------
    def __init__(self):
        self.window = Tk()
        self.window.title('Tic-Tac-Toe')
        self.canvas = Canvas(self.window, width=size_of_board, height=size_of_board)
        self.canvas.pack()
        # Input from user in form of clicks
        self.window.bind('<Button-1>', self.click)

        self.initialize_board()
        self.player_X_turns = True
        self.board_status = np.zeros(shape=(3, 3))

        self.player_X_starts = True
        self.reset_board = False
        self.gameover = False
        self.tie = False
        self.X_wins = False
        self.O_wins = False

        self.X_score = 0
        self.O_score = 0
        self.tie_score = 0

    def mainloop(self):
        self.window.mainloop()

    def initialize_board(self):
        for i in range(2):
            self.canvas.create_line((i + 1) * size_of_board / 3, 0, (i + 1) * size_of_board / 3, size_of_board)

        for i in range(2):
            self.canvas.create_line(0, (i + 1) * size_of_board / 3, size_of_board, (i + 1) * size_of_board / 3)

    def play_again(self):
        self.initialize_board()
        self.player_X_starts = not self.player_X_starts
        self.player_X_turns = self.player_X_starts
        self.board_status = np.zeros(shape=(3, 3))

    # ------------------------------------------------------------------
    # Drawing Functions:
    # The modules required to draw required game based object on canvas
    # ------------------------------------------------------------------

    def draw_O(self, logical_position):
        logical_position = np.array(logical_position)
        # logical_position = grid value on the board
        # grid_position = actual pixel values of the center of the grid
        grid_position = self.convert_logical_to_grid_position(logical_position)
        self.canvas.create_oval(grid_position[0] - symbol_size, grid_position[1] - symbol_size,
                                grid_position[0] + symbol_size, grid_position[1] + symbol_size, width=symbol_thickness,
                                outline=symbol_O_color)

    def draw_X(self, logical_position):
        grid_position = self.convert_logical_to_grid_position(logical_position)
        self.canvas.create_line(grid_position[0] - symbol_size, grid_position[1] - symbol_size,
                                grid_position[0] + symbol_size, grid_position[1] + symbol_size, width=symbol_thickness,
                                fill=symbol_X_color)
        self.canvas.create_line(grid_position[0] - symbol_size, grid_position[1] + symbol_size,
                                grid_position[0] + symbol_size, grid_position[1] - symbol_size, width=symbol_thickness,
                                fill=symbol_X_color)

    def display_gameover(self):

        if self.X_wins:
            self.X_score += 1
            text = 'Winner: Player 1 (X)'
            color = symbol_X_color
        elif self.O_wins:
            self.O_score += 1
            text = 'Winner: Player 2 (O)'
            color = symbol_O_color
        else:
            self.tie_score += 1
            text = 'Its a tie'
            color = 'gray'

        self.canvas.delete("all")
        self.canvas.create_text(size_of_board / 2, size_of_board / 3, font="cmr 60 bold", fill=color, text=text)

        score_text = 'Scores \n'
        self.canvas.create_text(size_of_board / 2, 5 * size_of_board / 8, font="cmr 40 bold", fill=Green_color,
                                text=score_text)

        score_text = 'Player 1 (X) : ' + str(self.X_score) + '\n'
        score_text += 'Player 2 (O): ' + str(self.O_score) + '\n'
        score_text += 'Tie                    : ' + str(self.tie_score)
        self.canvas.create_text(size_of_board / 2, 3 * size_of_board / 4, font="cmr 30 bold", fill=Green_color,
                                text=score_text)
        self.reset_board = True

        score_text = 'Click to play again \n'
        self.canvas.create_text(size_of_board / 2, 15 * size_of_board / 16, font="cmr 20 bold", fill="gray",
                                text=score_text)

    # ------------------------------------------------------------------
    # Logical Functions:
    # The modules required to carry out game logic
    # ------------------------------------------------------------------

    def convert_logical_to_grid_position(self, logical_position):
        logical_position = np.array(logical_position, dtype=int)
        return (size_of_board / 3) * logical_position + size_of_board / 6

    def convert_grid_to_logical_position(self, grid_position):
        grid_position = np.array(grid_position)
        return np.array(grid_position // (size_of_board / 3), dtype=int)

    def is_grid_occupied(self, logical_position):
        if self.board_status[logical_position[0]][logical_position[1]] == 0:
            return False
        else:
            return True

    def is_winner(self, player):

        player = -1 if player == 'X' else 1

        # Three in a row
        for i in range(3):
            if self.board_status[i][0] == self.board_status[i][1] == self.board_status[i][2] == player:
                return True
            if self.board_status[0][i] == self.board_status[1][i] == self.board_status[2][i] == player:
                return True

        # Diagonals
        if self.board_status[0][0] == self.board_status[1][1] == self.board_status[2][2] == player:
            return True

        if self.board_status[0][2] == self.board_status[1][1] == self.board_status[2][0] == player:
            return True

        return False

    def is_tie(self):

        r, c = np.where(self.board_status == 0)
        tie = False
        if len(r) == 0:
            tie = True

        return tie

    def is_gameover(self):
        # Either someone wins or all grid occupied
        self.X_wins = self.is_winner('X')
        if not self.X_wins:
            self.O_wins = self.is_winner('O')

        if not self.O_wins:
            self.tie = self.is_tie()

        gameover = self.X_wins or self.O_wins or self.tie

        if self.X_wins:
            print('X wins')
        if self.O_wins:
            print('O wins')
        if self.tie:
            print('Its a tie')

        return gameover





    def click(self, event):
        grid_position = [event.x, event.y]
        logical_position = self.convert_grid_to_logical_position(grid_position)

        if not self.reset_board:
            if self.player_X_turns:
                if not self.is_grid_occupied(logical_position):
                    self.draw_X(logical_position)
                    self.board_status[logical_position[0]][logical_position[1]] = -1
                    self.player_X_turns = not self.player_X_turns
            else:
                if not self.is_grid_occupied(logical_position):
                    self.draw_O(logical_position)
                    self.board_status[logical_position[0]][logical_position[1]] = 1
                    self.player_X_turns = not self.player_X_turns

            # Check if game is concluded
            if self.is_gameover():
                self.display_gameover()
                # print('Done')
        else:  # Play Again
            self.canvas.delete("all")
            self.play_again()
            self.reset_board = False


game_instance = Tic_Tac_Toe()
game_instance.mainloop()
Tic Tac Toe GUI

I hope you liked this article on how to create a Tic-Tac-Toe Game in Python programming language. You can Also Read About Number Guessing Game in Python

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